Petroleum chemistry is one of the branches of chemistry, which depends on the conversion of crude oil to petroleum derivatives, which uses in most industries .
Crude oil consists of many hydrocarbons that vary in composition. Crude oil contains an average of 84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1% – 3% sulfur and less than 1% of all oxygen, nitrogen, metals and salts.
Petroleum chemistry is the science that works on the distillation of crude oil and separation distillates. Then use each product in the industry appropriate to it,Crude oil is distilled in the Fractionating Tower, which depends on heating, and the degree of evaporation of each gas.
Crude oil is distilled in Blast Furnace or the Fractionating Tower, which depends on the heating and evaporation rate of all gas. Gases with the lowest degree of evaporation found at the top of the furnace and by gradually descending to the bottom of the furnace, solids and Tar are found.
Petroleum chemistry Performs several processes on the resulting materials from distillation
Chemical processes :
Chemical processes under the influence of heat and pressure or by the auxiliary factors on all or some petroleum derivatives from distillation units in oil refineries to obtain products of good quality commensurate with the requirements of use ,such as the process of improving and producing car fuel, kerosene, gas oil, lubricating oils, And light hydrocarbon products used as components in the petrochemical industry units. These include:
1. Thermal cracking
2 – catalytic cracking
3 – hydrogenated cracking
Treatment Process is the final process of the petroleum products, either physical or chemical, and the chemicals used in the purification processes are many, including the solution of caustic soda, which is used in the purification of the gas and benzene from hydrogen sulphide . and sulfuric acid concentrates, which is used in the purification of kerosene from sulfur and aromatic substances, It is also used to purify Aviation fuel and others. Hydrogen gas is also used to remove many impurities.