Crude oil properties Is a thick oil liquid, the color of crude oil is brown or greenish black, crude oil is found in the upper layers of the earth’s crust. It is not pure but it is mixed with many other materials , including chemical materials and natural materials such as rocks, sand, plants and animals.
Crude oil Properties
Crude oil properties ,The oil consists of hydrocarbons, which in turn consist of organic materials containing hydrogen and carbon. And some non-carbon parts such as nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and some trace metals such as vanadium or nickel, such elements do not exceed 1% of the composition of oil.
The constituents of oil are separated by fractional distillation, a process of separation based on the relative boiling points (or relative volatilities) of the different substances resulting from oil distillation. The various products are produced in the order of their boiling points, including light gaseous, such as methane, ethane from analytical chemistry methods, often used in quality control sections of oil refineries
The four lighter alkanes are: methane CH4, ethane C2H6, propane C3H8, Bhutan C4H10. They are all gases. And their boiling point is -161.6 C °, -88 C °, -42 C ° and -0.5 C °, respectively (-258.9, -127.5, -43.6, -31.1 F °) The products of carbon chains C5-7 are all light, and fly easily, pure naphtha. They are used as solvents, dry cleaning fluids and other quick-drying products. The more complex chains from C6H14 to C12H26 are mixed together and gasoline (gasoline). Kerosene is made from carbon chains C10 to C15. Then fuel diesel and oil burners in the range from C10 to C20. Fuel oils heavier than that are used in ship engines. All these oil compounds are liquid at room temperature ,
Lubricants, semi-solid grease and Vaseline range from C16 to C20. The higher chains of C20 are solid, starting from paraffin wax, then tar, bitumen, and asphalt. These heavy materials are located at the bottom of the distillation tower.
crude oil properties too :
The following sequence gives the resulting oil components according to the sequence of their boiling point under atmospheric pressure in the fractional distillation by percentage:
Aether Oil: 40 – 70 ° C Used as solvent Light
gasoline: 60 – 100 ° C Used as fuel for cars >
Heavy gasoline: 100- 150 ° C Used as fuel for cars
Light kerosene: 120 – 150 ° C Used as solvent and fuel for homes
Kerosene: 150-300 ° C Used as fuel for jet engines
Diesel: 250 – 350 ° C Used as diesel fuel and for heating
Lubricating oil:> 300 C ° Used motor oil
The remaining large parts: tar, asphalt, wax, residual fuel.